Genitourinary Syndrome Of Menopause


As women age, hormonal changes occur that can affect various aspects of their health, including their reproductive system. One common condition that arises during menopause is Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM). GSM encompasses a range of symptoms related to the genital and urinary systems and can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. Let’s delve deeper into understanding the causes and symptoms of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause.

Causes of GSM

Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM) is primarily caused by the decline in oestrogen levels that occurs during menopause. Oestrogen plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the genitourinary system.


It is a sex hormone that plays a role in puberty, mensuration, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and bone health. Certainly, the production of oestrogen from the ovaries is extremely low, after menopause and in those who may have hormonal imbalances not related to menopause.

Oestrogen receptors

It can be found in the tissues of the vagina, vulva, urethra and bladder. Further, it results in the changes in the anatomy and functions of these tissues when oestrogen levels begin to decrease which can lead to symptoms of GSM.

Changes to these tissues result in the reduction of:

  1. skin thickness
  2. elasticity
  3. muscle function
  4. blood flow

Risk for developing GSM

Certain people are more at risk for developing GSM than others, namely, those who:

  1. have undergone or are undergoing menopause
  2. have had surgery to remove the oophorectomy or ovaries
  3. have a history of smoking
  4. have a history of alcohol abuse
  5. do not engage in sexual activity often
  6. are practising abstinence
  7. are undergoing certain cancer treatments

Symptoms of GSM

GSM is a chronic, progressive condition of the vulvovaginal and lower urinary tract, which is characterized by a broad spectrum of signs and symptoms. Let’s go through the same:


  1. Vaginal dryness
  2. Irritation/burning/itching
  3. Leukorrhea
  4. Thinning/greying pubic hair
  5. Vaginal/pelvic pain and pressure
  6. Vaginal vault prolapses


  1. Dyspareunia
  2. Reduced lubrication
  3. Post-coital bleeding
  4. Decreased arousal, orgasm, desire
  5. Loss of libido, arousal
  6. Dysorgasmia


  1. Dysuria
  2. Urgency
  3. Stress/urgency incontinence
  4. Recurrent urinary tract infections
  5. Urethral prolapse
  6. Ischemia of vesical trigone

To sum up

In brief, these symptoms can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life and may require medical intervention for management. Schedule a visit with a doctor or gynecologist to discuss your options, if you are concerned that you might be at risk for developing Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause. Besides, Eva Cosmo Laser Clinic, one of the best fertility clinics in Chennai, with the best Gynecologist can be one of your options.

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